High quality reading instruction incorporates the five components of reading delivered through a coherent instructional design.
Research has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of initial instruction that includes the five critical components of reading: Phonological Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension. To be most effective, the five critical components need to be taught explicitly within classrooms that are strongly positive and engaging, use writing activities to support literacy, and provide students with many opportunities to read interesting text and complete authentic reading and writing assignments. Teachers typically follow a core reading curriculum to guide instruction in whole and small group settings. Small group instruction should be individualized to reflect the instructional needs of the students. Individual student needs are determined by formal screening and progress monitoring assessments, classroom assessments, and teacher observations. The goal is to use information from multiple sources to group students in a way that makes instruction in critical reading skills most efficient. For more information on the content and sequence for delivery of these please see Components of Reading.