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Frequently Asked Questions About Reading Instruction


Aronson, J., Zimmerman, J., Carlos, L. (1999). Improving student achievement by extending school: Is it just a matter of time? WestEd, San Francisco, CA. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, D.C.

Foorman, B. & Torgesen, J.K. (2001), Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction to promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16, 203-212.

Gettinger, M. (1984). Achievement as a function of time spent in learning and time needed for learning. American Educational Research Journal, 21(3), 617-628.
Gettinger, M. (1985). Time allocated and time spent relative to time needed for learning as determinants of achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 3-11.
Gettinger, M. (1989). Effects of maximizing time spent and minimizing time needed for learning on pupil achievement. American Educational Research Journal. 26(1), 73-91.

Hossler, C., Stage, F., & Gallagher, K. (1988, March). The relationship of increased instructional time to student achievement. Policy Bulletin: Consortium on Educational Policy Studies.

Moore, MT., & Funkhouser, J. (1990, January). More time to learn: Extended time strategies for chapter 1 students. Washington, DC: Decision Resources Corp.

Quartarola, B. (1984, May). A research paper on time on task and the extended school day/year and their relationship to improving student achievement. Burlingame, CA: Association of California School Administrators.

Taylor, B. M., Pearson, P. D., Clark, K., Walpole, S. (2000). Effective schools and accomplished teachers: Lessons about primary-grade reading instruction in low-income schools. The Elementary School Journal, 101(2), 121-165.

Taylor, B. M., Pearson, P. D., Peterson, D. S., & Rodriguez, M. C. (2003). Reading growth in high-poverty classrooms: The influence of teacher practices that encourage cognitive engagement in literacy learning. The Elementary School Journal, 104(1), 3-28.

Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002) Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Osborn, J., Lehr, F., Hiebert, E. (2003) A Focus on Fluency. Retrieved 5/13/06 http://www.prel.org/products/re_/fluency-1.htm

DAR (Diagnostic Assessment of Reading)
Roswell, F., Chall, J., Curtis,M.E., and Gail Kearns (2005). Diagnostic Assessment of Reading (2nd Ed.). Boston, MA: Riverside.

ERDA (Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment) The Psychological Corporation. (2006). Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment (2nd Ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt.

GMRT (Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, 3rd ed.) Gates, A. I., & MacGinitie, W. H. (2000). Gates-MacGinitie reading tests, (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Riverside.

GRADE (Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation)
Williams, K.T. Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation. (2001). Shoreview, MN: Pearson AGS Globe.

WRMT (Woodcock Reading Mastery Test)
Woodcock, R.W. (1998). Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests- Revised. Circle Pines, MN.:American Guidance Service.

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